Derivation of probabilistic thresholds of spatially distributed rainfall for flood forecasting

نویسندگانGolian, S - Saghafian, B - Maknoon, R
نشریهWater Resources Management
ارائه به نام دانشگاهTechnical and Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University
شماره صفحات3547-3559
شماره مجلد24
ضریب تاثیر (IF)5.120
نوع مقالهFull Paper
تاریخ انتشار2010
رتبه نشریهISI
نوع نشریهچاپی
کشور محل چاپایالات متحدهٔ امریکا

چکیده مقاله

“Rainfall threshold” is considered as one of the evolving flood forecasting approaches. When the cumulative rainfall depth for a given initial soil moisture condition intersects the corresponding moisture curve, the peak discharge is expected to be equal or greater than the threshold discharge for flooding at the target site. Besides the total rainfall depth, spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall can influence the peak discharge and the time to peak. In the few past studies on the extraction of rainfall threshold curves for flood forecasting, the rainfall assumed to be uniform in space whereas the temporal distribution was subjected to certain assumptions. In the present study, the spatial distribution of rainfall was simulated with the Monte Carlo (MC) method and the mean Huff pattern for all rainfall durations was imposed for the temporal distribution. For each of the MC run, the random weight assigned to every sub-watershed follows the pdf of weights in historical rainfall events. The HEC–HMS model with two different infiltration methods namely SCS–CN and Green–Ampt and Muskingum river routing were adopted as the hydrologic model. After the calibration and validation of the model for Madarsoo watershed in Golestan province in Northeastern Iran, the MC simulations were performed for 1, 2, 6 and 12 h durations. The outputs from the SCS–CN method exhibit only a slight increase in threshold values with respect to duration and was not in the range of our expectations from watershed response, i.e. the rainfalls with greater durations should be greater in depth to produce a specific peak discharge. For the Green–Ampt infiltration method, the rainfall thresholds with 50% probability associated with the critical discharge under dry soil moisture condition were 44.5, 49.0, 64.2 and 94.6 mm for 1, 2, 6 and 12 h durations, respectively. Results for July 2001 flooding revealed that the cumulative rainfall intersected all 10%, 50% and 90% rainfall threshold curves but for July 2005 flooding the 10% curve was only intersected by the cumulative rainfall curve. The advantage of MC-derived rainfall threshold curves in real-time operations is that decision-makers have the flexibility to adopt a curve more consistent with flood observations in the region.

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