|نویسندگان||Sharifi, E - Steinacker, R - Saghafian, B|
|ارائه به نام دانشگاه||Technical and Engineering Department, Science and Research Branch Islamic Azad University|
|نوع مقاله||Full Paper|
|رتبه نشریه||علمی - پژوهشی|
|کشور محل چاپ||اسپانیا|
Over the years, combinations of different methods that use multi-satellites and multi-sensors have been developed for estimating global precipitation. Recently, studies that have evaluated Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) Final-Run (FR) version V-03D and other precipitation products have indicated better performance for IMERG-FR compared to other similar products in different climate regimes. This study comprehensively evaluates the two GPM-IMERG products, specifically IMERG-FR and IMERG-Real-Time (RT) late-run, against a dense station network (62 stations) in northeast Austria from mid-March 2015 to the end of January 2016 using different time-scales. Both products are examined against station data in capturing the occurrence and statistical characteristics of precipitation intensity. With regard to probability density functions (PDFs), the satellite precipitation estimate (SPE) products have detected more heavy and extreme precipitation events than the ground measurements. Both precipitation products at all time-scales, except for IMERG-RT 12-hourly and daily precipitation, capture less occurrence of precipitation than the station dataset for light precipitation. This partially explains the under-detection of precipitation events. For all time-scales, both IMERG products' CDFs (Cumulative Distribution Function) are well above that of the stations' precipitation. For lower precipitation levels, IMERG-RT is slightly below the IMERG-FR whereas IMERG-RT is above IMERG-FR at higher precipitation levels. Furthermore, for entire spectrum precipitation rates (P ≥ 0.1 mm), 1, 3, 6-hourly, IMERG-FR did not show a clear improvement of the Bias over IMERG-RT, while for 12-hourly and daily precipitation estimates, the bias in IMERG-FR has improved compared to IMERG-RT. In addition, IMERG-FR shows a considerable improvement in RMSE as compared to IMERG-RT. IMERG-FR, however, systematically underestimates moderate to extreme precipitation and overestimates light precipitation for all time scales against rain-gauges in northeast Austria. When comparing the bias, RMSE, and correlation coefficients, IMERG-FR has outperformed IMERG-RT particularly for 6-hourly, 12-hourly, and daily precipitation. Despite the general low probability of detection (POD) and threat score (TS) and the high false alarm ratio (FAR) within specified precipitation thresholds, the contingency table shows relatively acceptable values of the POD, TS and FAR for precipitation without classification.